To reach the target of climate neutrality of European cities by 2030, it is very important to introduce renewable energy systems into the global energy system. To manage the fluctuating power generation of renewable energy systems, it is very important to use energy management techniques. One of the energy management techniques is to establish energy communities in these cities. e.g. AIT has made in cooperation with Wien Energie a study about energy communities as part of smart and sustainable urban districts. On the basis of the fact that the energy demand is covered by locally available renewable energy sources, energy communities can contribute to grid stability and strengthen the local energy supply security.
As an energy management technique, it is necessary to establish a digital smart network of infrastructure facilities and the flexible handling of data from different actors. Here is the link to each other in almost real-time importance, so that the energy requirements of all consumers are intelligently estimated and on that basis the generation and supply of energy can be dynamically adapted. Another energy management technique, except the establishment of energy communities, is " Demand Side Management" where based on the grid situation (energy surplus/ energy deficiency), loads can be targeted switched off or on e.g. in the industry. The fundamental base of all the energy management techniques is ICT (Information and communications technology), which is defined as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange data and information.
Figure reference: https://communitiesforfuture.org/event/what-makes-energy-communities-the-future-of-the-energy-system-2/
The figure ilustrates an example of an energy community . The components of this energy community example are smart homes, smart transport, energy storages, renewable energy sources, the grid manangement and a distribution network. They are connected by ICT and use energy management techniques (e.g. smart meter, smart network,..). Reference: https://communitiesforfuture.org/event/what-makes-energy-communities-the-future-of-the-energy-system-2/