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Cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM)


Connected, Cooperative and Automated Mobility (CCAM) refers to the development of user-centered, inclusive and shared mobility concepts, for people and goods, that are based on automation and connectivity. These innovative mobility concepts aim to complement and integrate the EU transport system with the aim to make it safer, smarter and more sustainable. CCAM has the potential to transform the way we move and the way we travel: it can decrease transport accidents while increasing performance, make traffic more efficient, reduce congestion, and enhance the inclusiveness and resilience of mobility services. From (4) “In road transport, it can provide more safety, better social inclusion and higher efficiency; in railways, it enhances the performance of the overall system, including train operations, traffic management, maintenance and it creates opportunities for new mobility services; in waterborne, it can improve the safety of shipping and the efficiency of transport and logistics as well as benefit the environment”. The integration of CCAM solutions into the overall transport ecosystem, coupled with smart traffic management, could increase road infrastructure capacity, thereby reducing transport emissions, congestion and pollution. In rail, CCAM could offer safer and more efficient systems leading to optimised automated urban rail operations, fully leveraging the benefits of digitalisation and automation. Regarding inland waterway transport, CCAM could reduce the risk of human error in logistics operations, which account for a large share of accidents, by improving vessel technologies and systems, as well as enhancing data integration and connectivity. In urban air transport, CCAM relates mainly to urban air mobility, through concepts such as on-demand transport of people and goods using aerial drones.  

Figure 1: Tram perception system concept from the TAURO project (5) 


Most importantly, when thoroughly planned, CCAM solutions could make mobility fair and accessible to all, particularly to vulnerable user groups, which includes women, children, disabled persons, the elderly, but also people from low-income backgrounds and people living in rural or peri-urban areas. Nevertheless, a fragmented and incoherent deployment of CCAM could have negative rebound effects at both societal and environmental level (i.e. low acceptability, increase in urban sprawl, rise in GHG emissions, and lack of synchronisation of mixed traffic situations between automated and conventional vehicles)(5). A long-term vision and strategy, from research to regulation, as well as proper governance models will be key to deploy meaningful CCAM systems and technologies on our roads. Making CCAM solutions sustainable and futureproof requires an alignment between public and private efforts at local, national and international level, as well as a coherent and harmonised R&I agenda. Advancing and maturing CCAM technologies will enable trustworthy interactions between all traffic participants, allow a better use of public space and improve the infrastructure capacity of our cities.  

As we move towards climate-neutrality in Europe by 2030, the development and large-scale deployment of CCAM has to answer to individual and collective needs, values and expectations, to ensure a positive impact. Proactive planning, anticipation, reflexivity and responsiveness, in line with local policy goals, will help to identify potential bottlenecks (at technical, policy or regulatory level) and create user-centered, sustainable and inclusive mobility solutions for all (4)

Figure 2: Autonomous shuttles part of pilot trials in the SHOW project (7)


Note: For the description of Cooperative Connected and Automated Mobility, the term vehicle will be used to refer to any means of transport (road vehicles, vessels, trains).  Whenever necessary to refer to a particular type, the transport mode will be mentioned. 

Figure 3: Lead vessel and autonomous follower from demonstration part of the NOVIMAR project (8) 



The maturity of CCAM technologies varies greatly depending on the transport mode and level of automation.  

  • Road transport: connected and autonomous driving for road vehicles has been intensively researched, with many projects carrying out field tests and pilot trials, and real life case studies. Such is the case for the CoEXist (a), AVENUE (b), AUTOPILOT (c), SHOW (d), ENSEMBLE (t) and L3PILOT (u) projects.  

  • Vessels: The AUTOSHIP project (n) has tested autonomous vessels at TRL 7, with TRL 9 expected after 2023, while the EGNSS Hull-to-Hull (o) project has developed systems to be used in such vessels, with TRL 8. 

  • Railway: Automated underground metro systems are already commercially available and deployed in various cities. Automated surface rail operations are been researched by the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking (7), especially within the TAURO (f), X2RAIL-4 (g), SMART2 (h) and CONNECTA-3 (i)  projects, and will be continued through the Europe’s Rail Joint Undertaking programme (8). The technologies are currently in TRL 4 to 6, and are expected to reach TRL 8 or 9 by 2030.    

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Rupprecht Consult
EIT Urban Mobility


Climate resilienceEnergyTransport and mobility
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