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Analysis of City/ (Building) circularity

Emission-free building systems is a method to clarify the impact of material-related energy of built objects, aiming at realizing a number of improvements, such as stronger quality assurance, faster construction time, greater productivity and an improved margin. Industrialization, due to reduced activities on the building site, more efficient production in the factory and optimized logistics, is also expected to contribute to emissions reduction.

Source: TNO (Link)

On the basis of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), emissions from building systems, such as on-site construction, 2D or 3D unit construction are compared in terms of production, construction, maintenance, demolition and reuse. The focus is on emissions of CO2, NOx and particulates and a distinction is made between relevant building components, such as construction, interior, installations or facade systems. The method results in the impact of building system modifications at the level of materialization (e.g. bio-based or secondary), construction methodology (e.g. through industrial construction) and logistics of processes (e.g. through the use of construction hubs).

Source:  BPIE (Buildings Performance Institute Europe), 2021

A distinction is made between the overall lifecycle emissions and the local emissions at the construction site. This not only provides general insights into emission-controlled construction methods, but also stimulates locally short, healthy and circular construction processes in cities.

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Circular economyGovernance and policyClimate resilienceBuildingMaterials
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